Hello Fargo, I’ve come for your beans!

Project: Bean Variety Trials at North Dakota State University
Project Leads: Juan Osorno and Ali Soltani, North Dakota State University
Goal: Collect photosynthesis and plant health data on 150 varieties of common bean for eventual QTL (genetic) mapping.

Project Page
View and analyze the data (create a login if necessary)
Juan Osorno’s NDSU page

 

Hello Fargo!

This week I went to Fargo, North Dakota to meet with Professor Juan Osorno and post-doc Ali Soltani, bean breeders at North Dakota State University. I bet you didn’t know that NDSU has one of the premier bean breeding programs in the US – well they do!

On my flight in, I told the guy next to me I’d never been to North Dakota before, and his response was “You’re going to love it”… Love it? North Dakota? Well, yes, I did love it. People were nice, and it appeared that everyone was there because they wanted to be, which makes sense, you don’t end up in North Dakota for no reason. Agriculture is booming, and the the fields are gigantic (at least in comparison to the ones I was used to growing up in central New York). So, what were we doing there? I’ll let Ali give a recap:

So our goal is to show that you can correlate photosynthetic outcomes to actual genes or groups of genes.   This has so far proven difficult and slow to achieve for breeders especially in comparison with the dizzying pace of mapping the genome, which has been automated and has come down in cost many orders of magnitude over the last 15 years. We took measurements of 150 different varieties with 6 replicates each (900 measurements total).  Each measurement included two protocols: SPAD (a measure of leaf greenness which correlates to Nitrogen content) and Phi2 (a measure of photosynthetic efficiency).

Stephan collecting data using the Android app

It took us some time to get ready to collect data.  We had to go to a coffee shop to get internet to make sure everyone had an account at PhotosynQ.org and their cell phones had the PhotosynQ android app installed correctly.  But once we got to the field (a full 1.5 hours away!), taking measurements was a snap.  The only technical problems we had were swapping batteries as they needed to be recharged – that was a big success for us, and shows we’re ready to do real work with this thing!


MultispeQs charging their batteries after a hard days work.

So let’s look at some preliminary results using the online analysis tool (so you can view and play with the data too!  Note that you may have to create a login first). This tool is intended to be a Swiss Army knife of sorts – it can do lots of quick analysis, but none of them too deeply.  If you need to do multiple regression analysis… you’ll probably have to just download the data 🙂  We might to see more data in this project this week, as Ali and Stephan go back to a second field, we’ll see.  Also, Ali is working on more in depth device comparisons, to try to use statistics to parse out the variation coming from the device versus that coming from the varieties themselves.

We can also compare two variables on the X and Y axis. Here we have LEF (linear electron flow) a measure of energy from photosynthesis compared to light intensity. Each device has a separate series. These differences may be due to calibration, or differences in plants, hard to know yet.
We can also compare two variables on the X and Y axis. Here we have fluorescence in the steady state (normal light) versus that from a saturated state (very high light).  These differences may be due to calibration, or differences in plants, hard to know yet.
SPAD (a measure of greenness) was fairly consistent across devices as you can see. Some variation is due to the fact that each device only measured 60 of the 150 varieties, so there's not perfect overlap there.
SPAD (a measure of greenness) was fairly consistent across devices as you can see. Some variation is due to the fact that each device only measured 60 of the 150 varieties, so there’s not perfect overlap there.
The most important outcome from this trial was to determine if 6 devices could produce consistent results. As you can see here, device 43 was reading too high on light intensity PAR - we'll have to investigate that!
The most important outcome from this trial was to determine if 6 devices could produce consistent results. As you can see here, device 43 was reading too high on light intensity PAR – we’ll have to investigate that!
This is a simple average of Phi2 for 15 varieties. The black bars are 1 standard deviation.
This is a simple average of Phi2 for 15 varieties. The black bars are 1 standard deviation.  Anything statistically significant here?… mmm… not quite yet.
Histogram showing Phi2 (photosynthetic efficiency) for the entire sample - distribution isn't too bad!
Histogram showing Phi2 (photosynthetic efficiency) for the entire sample – distribution isn’t too bad!  Not a lot of outliers which means the MultispeQs worked ok.
temperature by time
This graph doesn’t show much from a plant health perspective, but it does show how temperature in the device varied over time. In general we’ve found that people’s hands heat up the device the longer they hold it. You can see that effect here for each device (each series snakes upwards), and you can see how long it took us to take all our measurements. This is something else we need to address in the next version.
Here's a map of the field colored by device ID. The entire field is offset to the left by about 10 meters. However, you can see that each user measured from left to right over only a few rows, which was correct - cool!
Here’s a map of the field colored by device ID. The entire field is offset to the left by about 10 meters. However, you can see that each user measured from left to right over only a few rows, which was correct – cool!

 

 

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in:

WordPress.com Logo

You are commenting using your WordPress.com account. Log Out /  Change )

Google+ photo

You are commenting using your Google+ account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

w

Connecting to %s